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Aging and Chronic Disease Control
2002 Survey on the Prevalence of Hypertension, Hyperglycemia and Hyperlipidemia in Taiwan
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The ten leading causes of death in Taiwan have changed from infectious diseases in 1952 to chronic degenerative diseases in recent years, of which the rate of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases has increased the most significantly. In 2000, cerebrovascular diseases, heart disease, diabetes, nephritis, nephrotic syndrome, nephrosis and hypertensive diseases were identified as about 31.18% of total causes of death in Taiwan. Common risk factors shared by these diseases are hypertension, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, whose development plays a pivotal role in the progression of the previously mentioned diseases. Early diagnosis and good control of these risk factors can reduce the onset of the diseases and death, thus lowering the burden on society. This research is a serological baseline research intended to investigate the rates of hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and hypertension among the Taiwan population, followed with subsequent community investigations on this generation of the people. The research results are expected to provide references regarding the rate of occurrence of the aforementioned diseases among males and females of different ages for clinical research and policy formulation Cross-sectional methods were employed in the serological epidemiological research, which collected samples from Taiwan residents aged above 15 years old. The residents are also the subjects of National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) conducted by Department of Health (the subjects were representative samples in Taiwan from 359 urban areas and towns which were classified to seven strata according to different areas, and samples were collected from a total of 6592 households from 1648 neighborhoods). By random sampling in each stratum (in total of 10292 residents from 3296 households from 824 neighborhoods were sampled) and based on 60% predicted blood collection rate, about 7000 cases were collected. The survey was conducted according to standardized protocol by well trained interviewers.
The survey began in March 2002 and completed in October 2002, and obtained valid questionnaires from 7578 people (73.6%), 6602 specimens (64.1%) and results of blood pressure measurement from 6941 people (67.4%). After deducting 12 people who do not belong to the subject group of NHIS, the sample population in this report is 7576 people. Interviews were completed in all areas, and the response rate from each town and area varied from 44% to 100%. The age difference between sampled and reported subjects from seven strata of areas was within one year. The age and gender distributions showed no significant difference (p>0.05).
As the research results suggest, the prevalence of hypertension (having medical history of hypertension, systolic pressure higher than 140mmHg or diastolic pressure higher than 90mmHg) in males (24.9%) is higher than that in females (18.2%), and the prevalence in the population aged <20, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, 70-79 and >80 years old is respectively 2.4%, 3.7%, 7.0%, 19.4%, 34..0%, 47.1%, 61.5% and 57.5%. Regarding the prevalence of hyperglycemia (having medical history of diabetes, fasting blood glucose level higher than 126mg/dL, or glycosylated hemoglobin higher than 6%), males (8.2%) have a higher prevalence as compared to females (6.8%), and the prevalence in the population of different ages, <20, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, 70-79 and >80 years old, is 0.4%, 1.0%, 1.9%, 6.1%, 12.8%, 20.2%, 20.2% and 20.8%. The prevalence of hypercholesterolemia (having medical history of hyperlipidemia, or blood cholesterol level higher than 240mg/dL) however shows no significant difference between males (10.8%) and females (10.9%), and that in different age groups, <20, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, 70-79 and >80 years old, is respectively 0.5%, 3.9%, 6.0%, 11.0%, 18.3%, 22.2%, 20.7% and 20.6%. The prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia (having medical history of hyperlipidemia or blood triglyceride level higher than 200mg/dL) in males (20.3%) is higher than that in females (11.3%). In different age groups, <20, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, 70-79 and >80 years old, the prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia is 2.2%, 6.6%, 14.1%, 17.0%, 20.8%, 26.9%, 26.0% and 19.6% respectively. To conclude, the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidemia is getting serious in the elders, in particular, reaching the peak in the age group, 60-69 years old. Generally, males have a higher prevalence compared to females.